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The Sumerian language has many terms for canals, dikes, and reservoirs.

Sumerian speakers were farmers who moved down from the north after perfecting irrigation agriculture there.

The principal Sumerian sites (from North to South) were the cities of: Apart from Mari, which lies full 330 km northwest of Agade, but which is credited in the king list to have "exercised kingship" in the Early Dynastic II period, these cities are all in the Euphrates-Tigris alluvial plain, south of Baghdad in what are now the Bābil, Wāsit, Dhi Qar, Al-Muthannā and Al-Qādisiyyah governorates of Iraq.

The Uruk period civilization, exported by Sumerian traders and colonists (like that found at Tell Brak), had an effect on all surrounding peoples, who gradually evolved their own comparable, competing economies and cultures.

He is the last ethnically Sumerian king before the arrival of the Semitic named king, Sargon of Akkad.

The dynasty of Lagash is well known through important monuments, and one of the first empires in recorded history was that of Eannatum of Lagash, who annexed practically all of Sumer, including Kish, Uruk, Ur, and Larsa, and reduced to tribute the city-state of Umma, arch-rival of Lagash.

The first king on the list whose name is known from any other source is Etana, 13th king of the first Dynasty of Kish.

The first king authenticated through archaeological evidence is that of Enmebaragesi of Kish, the 22nd and penultimate king of that Dynasty, whose name is also mentioned in the Gilgamesh epic, and who may have been king at the time hegemony passed from Kish to Uruk once again.

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